I want to know what is the ruling and advantages of fasting on the 27th Rejab in conjunction with Isra’ Mikraj?
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Any form of sunnah fasting will only be considered as sunnah if there is evidence from the Quran or hadith that encourage the sunnah fasting. Here, we present the list of sunnah fasting in Islam from al-Fiqh al-Manhaji (2/114-117).
Among the types of sunnah fasts are:
- Fast on the day of Arafah
It is sunnah to fast on the 9th of Zulhijjah for those who are not performing the hajj.
This is according to the hadith from Abu Qatadah, he said: “The Prophet PBUH was asked regarding fasting on the day of Arafah. The Prophet PBUH replied:
يُكَفِّرُ السَّنَةَ الْمَاضِيَةَ وَالْبَاقِيَةَ
"It is an expiation for the sins of the preceding year and the current year."
Sahih Muslim (1162)
The day of Arafah is one of the prioritized days compared to other days. This is in accordance with a hadith where the Prophet PBUH said:
مَا مِنْ يَوْمٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ عَبْدًا مِنَ النَّارِ مِنْ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ
“There is no day when God sets free more servants from Hell than the Day of 'Arafa.”
Sahih Muslim (1338)
As for hajj pilgrims, it is not sunnah for them to fast on this day, it is even sunnah for him to break his fast following the actions of the Prophet PBUH to strengthen himself to supplicate on this day.
- Fasting on the day of Asyura’ and Tasu’aa’
Asyura, is the tenth day of Muharram, while Tasu’aa’ is the ninth day of the same month. This is according to a hadith from Ibn Abbas RA, he said:
أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ صَامَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ، وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ
“The Messenger PBUH fast on the day of Asyura’ and ordered (the Muslims) to fast on the day,”
Sahih al-Bukhari (1900) and Sahih Muslim (1130)
In another hadith from Abu Qatadah RA, the Prophet PBUH was asked regarding fasting on the day of Asyura. The Prophet PBUH answered:
يُكَفِّرُ السَّنَةَ الْمَاضِيَةَ
"It is an expiation for the sins of the preceding year,”
Sahih Muslim (1162)
In the next hadith from Ibn Abbas RA, he said, the Prophet PBUH said:
لَئِنْ بَقِيتُ إِلَى قَابِلٍ لأَصُومَنَّ التَّاسِعَ
“If I live until next year, I will fast the ninth day (of Muharram).”
Sahih Muslim (1134)
However, the Prophet PBUH passed away before the time comes.
The wisdom of fasting on the day of Tasu’aa’ and Asyura’ is to be careful as to the possibility of a mistake at the beginning of the month. It is also as to not resemble the Jews who fast on the tenth day of Muharram. Thus, anyone who did not fast on Tasu’aa’ and Asyura’ day, then it is sunnah for him to fast on the eleventh day of the month.
- Fast on Mondays and Thursdays
The evidence of fasting on both days is a hadith from Aisyah R.Anha, she said:
كَانَ الرَّسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَتَحَرَّى صَوْمَ الاِثْنَيْنِ وَالْخَمِيسِ
"The Messenger of Allah used to be keen to fast on Mondays and Thursday."
Sunan al-Tirmizi (745)
In the next hadith, from Abu Hurairah RA, the Prophet PBUH said:
تُعْرَضُ الأَعْمَالُ يَوْمَ الاِثْنَيْنِ وَالْخَمِيسِ، فَأُحِبُّ أَنْ يُعْرَضَ عَمَلِى وَأَنَا صَائِمٌ
"Deeds are presented on Monday and Thursday, and I love that my deeds be presented while I am fasting."
Sunan al-Tirmizi (747)
- Fast for three days of each month
The prioritized days to fast every month is on the days of the full moon, which is on the 13th, 14th, and 15th of every Islamic month or also known as white days (الأيام البيض). The reason is the night on these nights are brightly illuminated by moonlight. This is according to a hadith from Abu Hurairah RA, he said:
صِيَامِ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ، وَرَكْعَتَي الضُّحَى، وَأَنْ أُوتِرَ قَبْلَ أَنْ أَنَامَ
“My friend (the Prophet (ﷺ) ) advised me to observe three things: (1) to fast three days a month; (2) to pray two rak`at of Duha prayer (forenoon prayer); and (3) to pray witr before sleeping.”
Sahih al-Bukhari (1124) and Sahih Muslim (721)
In a hadith from Abu Qatadah RA, he said, the Prophet PBUH said:
صَوْمُ ثَلاَثَةٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ وَرَمَضَانَ إِلَى رَمَضَانَ صَوْمُ الدَّهْرِ
“Three days of each month, this is fasting for an entire lifetime.”
Sahih Muslim (1162)
In another hadith, from Abu Dzar RA, he said, the Prophet PBUH said:
إِذَا صُمْتَ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ ثَلاَثاً، فَصُمْ ثَلاَثَ عَشْرَةَ، وَأَرْبَعَ عَشْرَةَ، وَخَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ
"If you want to observe Saum on three days in a month, then fast on the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of the (lunar) month."
Sunan al-Tirmizi (761)
The same is stated in a hadith from Qatadah bin Milha RA, he said:
كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَأْمُرُنَا أَنْ نَصُومَ الْبِيضَ: ثَلاَثَ عَشْرَةَ، وَأَرْبَعَ عَشْرَةَ، وَخَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ. وَقَالَ: هُنَّ كَهَيْئَةِ الدَّهْرِ
“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to command us to fast the days of the white (nights): thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of the month. He said: This is like keeping perpetual fast.”
Sunan Abu Daud (2449)
However, fast on the 13th Zulhijjah is excluded because it is haram to fast on that day.
- Fast for six days in Syawal
The prioritized way to fast is to fast for six days consecutively right after Eidul fitri. However, this is not a condition for the fast. The sunnah is still achieved even if a person fasted in intervals. This is in accordance with a hadith from Abu Ayub RA, the Prophet PBUH said:
مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ، ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَهُ سِتًّا مِنْ شَوَّالٍ، كَانَ كَصِيَامِ الدَّهْرِ
"Whoever fasts during the month of Ramadan and then follows it with six days of Shawwal will be (rewarded) as if he had fasted the entire year."
Sahih Muslim (1164)
According to this book and the evidences presented, it is clear to us that fasting on the 27th of Rejab is not included as sunnah fasting unless if it so happens to fall on a Monday or Thursday. Furthermore, we have discussed that the determination of the incident of Isra’ and Mi’raj on the 27th Rejab is also a khilaf (a matter of which scholars have a difference of opinions) among the scholars of tarikh.
Let us all obey the commandments of Allah SWT and the Prophet PBUH and this is what is taught to us in Islam. May we are always blessed with guidance from Allah SWT.