In our current situation where we are all restricted from going out due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a viral culture of which people would divide the Quran according to the juzuk and they would then recite their juzuk. Usually, a group is created whether it is through Whatsapp group or others for the juzuk to be divided to each group member. This situation is also common every Ramadhan, where after each person has completed his juzuk, they would then hold a khatam al-Quran (completion of the recitation of the whole Quran) ceremony. My question is what is the ruling of dividing the juzuk of the Quran to be recited? And is it considered as khatam al-Quran where each person will receive the rewards of khatam al-Quran?
Waalaikumussalam wrm. wbt.,
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Always reciting the Quran is an encouraged deed. Allah SWT promises those who recite the Quran various rewards and high status. Among the rewards is stated in a hadith narrated by Abu Musa, where the Prophet PBUH said:
مَثَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِ الَّذِي يَقْرَأُ الْقُرْآنَ كَالأُتْرُجَّةِ، طَعْمُهَا طَيِّبٌ وَرِيحُهَا طَيِّبٌ، وَالَّذِي لاَ يَقْرَأُ كَالتَّمْرَةِ، طَعْمُهَا طَيِّبٌ وَلاَ رِيحَ لَهَا، وَمَثَلُ الْفَاجِرِ الَّذِي يَقْرَأُ الْقُرْآنَ كَمَثَلِ الرَّيْحَانَةِ، رِيحُهَا طَيِّبٌ وَطَعْمُهَا مُرٌّ، وَمَثَلُ الْفَاجِرِ الَّذِي لاَ يَقْرَأُ الْقُرْآنَ كَمَثَلِ الْحَنْظَلَةِ، طَعْمُهَا مُرٌّ وَلاَ رِيحَ لَهَا ".
"The example of him (a believer) who recites the Qur'an is like that of a citron which tastes good and smells good. And he (a believer) who does not recite the Qur'an is like a date which is good in taste but has no smell. And the example of a dissolute wicked person who recites the Qur'an is like the Raihana (sweet basil) which smells good but tastes bitter. And the example of a dissolute wicked person who does not recite the Qur'an is like the colocynth which tastes bitter and has no smell.”
Sahih al-Bukhari (7560)
The Meaning of Khatam al-Quran
The word khatam is an Arabic word (ختم) means closing. (Refer Kamus al-Ma’ani). Thus, khatam means the closing or ending (completion) of the 30 juzuk of al-Quran, whether it is by recitation or memorization.
Khatam al-Quran Ceremony
Indeed, Khatam al-Quran ceremony has its own advantages and benefits. Among them is that blessings are showered and supplications are granted during the ceremony, this is according to an athar from Anas bin Malik RA:
كَانَ أَنَسٌ إِذَا خَتَمَ الْقُرْآنَ، جَمَعَ وَلَدَهُ وَأَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ فَدَعَا لَهُمْ
“As for Anas, when he completed his Quran, he would assemble his children and family and supplicate with them.”
Narrated by al-Darimi (3517)
It is also narrated to be from the practice of the salaf where when Abdullah bin Mubarak completed his Quran, he would increase his supplication for the Muslimin. (Refer Al-Tibyan fi Adab Hamalah al-Quran, pg. 160)
Imam al-Nawawi said that it is sunnah muakkad to attend kahatam al-Quran ceremony. (Refer Al-Tibyan fi Adab Hamalah al-Quran, pg. 159). The sunnah ruling of attending khatam al-Quran ceremony is also stated by Syeikh Humaidhi in his book. (Refer Jamal al-Qurra’, pg. 149)
Please refer to our related article for further reading on the topic:
Irsyad al-Hadith Series 477: Gathering for Khatam al-Quran Ceremony https://muftiwp.gov.my/en/artikel/irsyad-al-hadith/3448-irsyad-al-hadith-siri-ke-377-berhimpun-ketika-majlis-khatam-al-quran
Furthermore, ceremonies such as these are also called as dhikr (remembrance of Allah SWT) ceremony where it consists of the recitation of the Quran in a congregation, certain dhikr according to certain kaifiat (methodology) and guideline as stated by scholars in their books. Such ceremonies are stated in a hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah RA, where the Prophet PBUH said:
وَمَا اجْتَمَعَ قَوْمٌ فِي بَيْتٍ مِنْ بُيُوتِ اللَّهِ يَتْلُونَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَيَتَدَارَسُونَهُ بَيْنَهُمْ إِلاَّ نَزَلَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّكِينَةُ وَغَشِيَتْهُمُ الرَّحْمَةُ وَحَفَّتْهُمُ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ وَذَكَرَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِيمَنْ عِنْدَهُ
“No people get together in a house of the houses of Allah (i.e. a mosque), reciting the Book of Allah, and learning it together among themselves, but calmness (sakinah) comes down to them, (Divine) mercy covers them (from above), and the angels surround them, and Allah makes a mention of them among those who are with Him.”
Sahih Muslim (2699)
The Ruling of Dividing the Juzuk of the Quran
The Messenger PBUH did not specify the kaifiat or certain way to complete the recitation of the Quran. Thus, the Muslim ummah is free to complete their recitation through any kaifiat or way they wish to do so for it is included among the matters of ijtihad.
It is generally known that people who recite the Quran are rewarded greatly and this is stated in a hadith of the Messenger PBUH:
مَنْ قَرَأَ حَرْفًا مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَلَهُ بِهِ حَسَنَةٌ وَالْحَسَنَةُ بِعَشْرِ أَمْثَالِهَا لاَ أَقُولُ الم حَرْفٌ وَلَكِنْ أَلِفٌ حَرْفٌ وَلاَمٌ حَرْفٌ وَمِيمٌ حَرْفٌ
"[Whoever recites a letter] from Allah's Book, then he receives the reward from it, and the reward of ten the like of it. I do not say that Alif Lam Mim is a letter, but Alif is a letter, Lam is a letter and Mim is a letter."
Sunan al-Tirmizi (3158)
There are several hadiths which discussed on the matter of khatam al-Quran, among them is:
عن عبدِ اللَّهِ بنِ عمرٍو أنَّهُ قالَ: يا رسولَ اللَّهِ! في كم أقرأُ القرآنَ؟ قالَ: في شَهرٍ. قالَ: إني أقوى من ذلِكَ، يردِّدُ الْكلامَ أبو موسى وتناقصَهُ حتَّى قالَ: اقرأْهُ في سبعٍ. قالَ: إني أقوى من ذلِك. قالَ: لاَ يفقَهُ من قرأَهُ في أقلَّ من ثلاثٍ
Abdullah ibn Amr asked the Prophet (ﷺ): “In how many days should I complete the recitation of the whole Qur'an, Messenger of Allah?” He replied: “In one month.” He said: “I am more energetic to complete it in a period less than this.” He kept on repeating these words and lessening the period until he said: “Complete its recitation in seven days.” He again said: “I am more energetic to complete it in a period less than this.” The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “He who finishes the recitation of the Qur'an in less than three days does not understand it.”
Sunan Abu Daud (476)
According to the above hadith, it is clear that a person should not be too hasty in his recitation of the Quran and complete it in less than three days. He should focus on the quality of his recitation by celebrating the tajwid rules and tadabbur (contemplation) and understanding the meanings of the verses of the Quran itself.
However, Imam al-Zarkasyi stated in his book: “The chosen opinion in this matter (it is impermissible to complete the recitation of the Quran in less than 3 days) is different according to the situation of a person (considering) in terms of his determination, weaknesses, tadabbur, and focus when reciting. The reason is it is narrated that Saidina Uthman RA completed his recitation of the Quran in one night.” (Refer Al-Burhan fi Ulum al-Quran, 1/471)
To conclude, there is nothing that prevents a person from dividing the recitation of the Quran by juzuk or others. In this matter, it is one of the efforts of scholars to encourage the public to increase their recitation of the Quran in various kaifiat or ways.
Thus, we could see that there are various suggestions in order to complete the recitation of the Quran once a month, such as by reciting a juzuk a day, which is to recite 4 pages for every obligatory prayer then he would have recited a juzuk a day and others. This depends on the wisdom and creativity of each person.
In short, the practice of dividing the recitation of the Quran in our society today is a commendable and encouraged act. The reason is the Prophet PBUH did not specify any methodology and it is up to us to recite it how we want to. Furthermore, it is to encourage people to increase their recitation of the Quran. Especially in the honoured month of Ramadhan.
However, a person is only considered to have completed his 30 juzuk of the Quran (from the first to the 30th juzuk) if he recited it completely or he listened to all 30 juzuk of the recitation through tadarrus which means taking turns reciting and listening to all of the recitations in the tadarus group. If he only recited his part of the tadarus and did not recite or listen to the rest of the recitation or juzuk, then he is not considered as have completed the Quran.
For khatam al-Quran ceremony:
- If there is a person from among the group who succeeded to complete his recitation of the Quran (all 30 juzuk), then everyone who attends the ceremony will receive the rewards for the khatam al-Quran. This is in accordance with an athar from Anas bin Malik RA which has been stated above.
- However, if there is not a single person from the group who manages to complete the recitation of the Quran, then none would receive the specific rewards of khatam al-Quran ceremony. However, they would still receive the rewards and benefits of dhikr ceremony which is attended by the angels. Wallahua’lam.
May Allah SWT give us all the correct understanding in practising the religion. Amin.