Assalamualaikum SS Datuk Mufti. I have a question regarding Qarin. What is Qarin? If we are Muslims, does this mean our Qarin is also a Muslim? That’s all. Thank you.
Waalaikumussalam wrt. wbt.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Lexically, qarin means something that participates (See al-Munjid, pg. 625). The term qarin for humans are two; an angel and a shaytan. Qarin from among the angels asks and encourages people to do good. While qarin from among the shaytan asks and encourages bad deeds. (See al-Nihayah fi Gharib al-Hadith, 2/447)
It is obligatory for believers to believe in the existence of qarin. This is in accordance with a hadith:
مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا وَقَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ، وَقَرِينُهُ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ
“There is none amongst you with whom is not an attaché from amongst the jinn (devil) and from amongst the angel.”
Musnad Ahmad (3648)
Even so, philosophers do not accept the existence of qarin the same as them rejecting the existence of jinn. (See Majmu al-Fatawa, 19/32)
Allah SWT states:
وَمَنْ يَعْشُ عَنْ ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِينٌ
“And whoever is blinded from remembrance of the Most Merciful - We appoint for him a devil, and he is to him a companion.”
Surah al-Zukhruf (36)
Allah SWT states:
وَقَيَّضْنَا لَهُمْ قُرَنَاءَ فَزَيَّنُوا لَهُمْ
“And We appointed for them companions who made attractive to them what was before them and what was behind them [of sin],”
Surah Fussilat (25)
Allah SWT states:
وَقَالَ قَرِينُهُ هَذَا مَا لَدَيَّ عَتِيدٌ (23) أَلْقِيَا فِي جَهَنَّمَ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ (24) مَنَّاعٍ لِلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ مُرِيبٍ (25) الَّذِي جَعَلَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ فَأَلْقِيَاهُ فِي الْعَذَابِ الشَّدِيدِ (26) قَالَ قَرِينُهُ رَبَّنَا مَا أَطْغَيْتُهُ وَلَكِنْ كَانَ فِي ضَلَالٍ بَعِيدٍ (27)
And his companion, [the angel], will say, "This [record] is what is with me, prepared." [ Allah will say], "Throw into Hell every obstinate disbeliever, Preventer of good, aggressor, and doubter, Who made [as equal] with Allah another deity; then throw him into the severe punishment." His [devil] companion will say, "Our Lord, I did not make him transgress, but he [himself] was in extreme error."
Surah Qaf (23-27)
Generally, the commentary scholars understood the first qarin is an angel accompanying a person and the second qarin is a shaytan who also accompanies a person. (See Tafsir al-Tabari, 13/201, 203; al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 19/447; Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, 13/191-192)
The Prophet PBUH himself also has a qarin but his qarin is different from other humans. From ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, the Prophet PBUH said:
مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ، إِلَّا وَقَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ. قَالُوا: وَإِيَّاكَ؟ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ قَالَ: وَإِيَّايَ، إِلَّا أَنَّ اللهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ، فَلَا يَأْمُرُنِي إِلَّا بِخَيْرٍ
“There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn (devil). They (the Companions) said: Allah's Messenger, with you too? Thereupon he said: Yes, but Allah helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand and he does not command me but for good.”
Sahih Muslim (2814)
The Opinion of Scholars
According to Ibn Taimiyyah, “Every human has a qarin from among the angel and jinn. He cannot see it and it is not visible around him.” (See al-Jawab al-Sahih, 4/288)
Ibn Kathir explained, “Qarin from amongst the angels do not act as a protector of humans but it accompanies them to guide them to the road of goodness the same as qarin from amongst the shaytan who strive to lead them towards ignorance and deviance. Those who are safe are those who are saved by Allah SWT.” (See al-Jawab al-Sahih, 4/288)
According to the above evidences and discussion, it is understood that every human has his own qarin of each an angel and shaytan. Angel qarin encourages people to do good and shaytan qarin lead people towards sins and transgression. The only exception is the qarin of the Prophet PBUH which does not encourage him towards evil but only towards goodness.