I would like to ask; is it permissible for us to recite al-Quran intending the reward for several people at the same time? Thank you.
Waalaikumussalam wrm. wbt,
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
The ruling of giving the rewards of one’s recitation of al-Quran to more than one deceased at the same time is permissible.
The ruling of giving the rewards of reciting al-Quran for a deceased already had been discussed several times before. Refer:
- Al-Kafi #719: The Deceased is Benefited from the Sadaqah of the Living
- Al-Kafi #990: Reciting Surah al-Mulk for the Deceased
- Irsyad al-Hadith Series 462: Hadith on Sunnah Prayer as A Gift for The Deceased
In conclusion, the act of giving the reward of reciting al-Quran for a deceased is permissible, in the form of du’a to Allah SWT to channel the rewards of the recitation to the deceased as what is acknowledged by Imam al-Nawawi.
When we accept the doing as a du’a, one of the ethics in making du’a is reciting it in general form or ta’mim. Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haitami said:
“It is Sunnah to make du’a in general form according to what is brought by al-Mustqghfiri: There is none loved by Allah more than the du’a from a slave, ‘O Allah, I ask of You to forgive the sins of Muhammad nation with a complete forgiveness’. In other narration: “That the Prophet PBUH heard a man said, “O Allah, I ask of You to forgive me,” then he said, “Curse on you. If you make your du’a general, surely, it will be granted”. In another narration, it is said that the Prophet pat the shoulder of the one who makes du’a, “Forgive me and bless me,” then the Prophet PBUH said to him, “You should make your du’a general. Indeed, between du’as which are general and specific is a gap between heaven and earth.”
(Refer Tuhfah al-Muhtaj , 2/88)
While according to al-Mausu`ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaitiyyah (13/20-21), the authors state that the scholars have decided on making du’a in general form is Sunnah, according to the saying of Allah Taala:
وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ
and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and believing women
Surah Muhammad (19)
And based on a khabar:
مَا مِنْ دُعَاءٍ أَحَبُّ إِلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ أَنْ يَقُول الْعَبْدُ: اللَّهُمَّ ارْحَمْ أُمَّةَ مُحَمَّدٍ رَحْمَةً عَامَّةً
“O Allah, I ask of You to forgive the sins of the Muhammad nation with a complete forgiveness”
Narrated by Abu Hurairah and stated by al-Khatib in his Tarikh(6/157), Ibn Adi in al-Kamil (4/1621) and Ibn Adi said that it is munkar.
And based on a saying of an A’rabi (Bedouin) where he said:
اللَّهُمَّ ارْحَمْنِي وَمُحَمَّدًا، وَلاَ تَرْحَمْ مَعَنَا أَحَدًا
"O Allah! Bestow Your Mercy on me and Muhammad only and do not bestow it on anybody else along with us."
Then the Prophet PBUH said:
لَقَدْ حَجَّرْتَ وَاسِعًا
"You have limited (narrowed) a very vast (thing),"
Sahih al-Bukhari (6010)
Based on the above facts and explanations, we are of the opinion that the ruling of intending rewards of reciting al-Quran to more than one deceased is permissible due to taking the rulings of supplicating which is permitted or even encouraged to be made general, which covers all believing people. If making du’a for all Muslims is permissible, so does to a few people through qiyas (analogical deduction). Wallahu a’lam.
May this explanation gives understanding to the one who asks. Let us make du’a to Allah SWT to group us all among those who receive forgiveness and blessing from Him. Ameen.