Assalamualaikum. When is the time of takbir for Eidul Adha? Is it the same with Eidul Fitri or are there any differences between these two festivities? Thank you.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Allah SWT says in the Quran:
وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
“For you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.”
Takbir during ‘Eid is an eminence which is a Sunnah for us to practice. However, there are details and differences between takbir for Eidul Adha and Eidul Fitr. They are as follows:
Types of Takbir for ‘Eid
The jurists divide takbir for ‘Eid into two categories; Takbir Mursal and Takbir Muqayyad.
- Takbir Mursal: It is also said as Takbir Mutlaq because its practice is not subjected to the time of prayers. Hence, starting from the setting of the sun on the night of Eidul Adha and Eidul Fitr until the takbiratul ihram of the ‘Eid prayers, it is Sunnah for us to recite takbir within this time. The scholars state that the practice of Takbir Mursal for Eidul Fitr is more emphasized than Eidul Adha.
- Takbir Muqayyad: The practice of this kind of takbir is subjected to the time of obligatory prayers (five daily prayers). So, when it is time for takbir for ‘Eidul Adha, it is Sunnah for us to recite takbir after performing the obligatory prayers. Takbir Muqayyad only happens for Eidul Adha and not for the night of Eidul Fitr. However, Takbir Mursal is more emphasized for Eidul Fitr. 
كَانَ يُكَبِّرُ مِنْ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ صَلَاةَ الْغَدَاةِ وَيَقْطَعُهَا صَلَاةَ الْعَصْرِ آخِرَ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ
“The Prophet PBUH always recite takbir on the ‘Arafah day after al-Ghadah prayer (Subh) and end it after performing ‘Asr prayer on the last day of tasyriq”
Al-Hakim (1111) with a valid sanad
This takbir is done by jahar method (loud voice) as the eminence of the Muslims. Refer al-Mu’tamad fi al-Fiqh al-Syafi’e (1/559) by Syeikh Muhammad al-Zuhaili & al-Taqrirat al-Sadidah (page 347).
The Time for Takbir
As being mentioned before, there are differences in the time of takbir for Eidul Adha and Eidul Fitr. These following Kaifiat (methods) we gathered from the actions of the Prophet PBUH and his companions, which passed on to the scholars.
- Eidul Adha: The time of Takbir Muqayyad for Eidul Adha starts from the Subh of Arafah day and continues to the end of ‘Asr on the third day of tasyriq.  Which means, when it is Subh of the 9th Zulhijjah, it is Sunnah for those who do not performing hajj to recite takbir on the end of each obligatory prayers to ‘Asr of 13th Zulhijjah, which makes the time of takbir is 5 days and 4 nights. However, for those performing hajj, the Sunnah of takbir starts from when the sun has passed its zenith, which is the Zuhr of Eidul Adha (10th Zulhijjah) until the rise of fajar sadiq, which is the Subh of the 13th However, if they finish the second tahallul, then they may recite takbir until ‘Asr prayer, like the others.
- Eidul Fitr: The time of Takbir Mursal starts from the setting of the sun on the ‘Eid’s night, starting from the Maghrib of 1st Syawwal until the takbiratul ihram of ‘Eidul Fitr prayer.
Here, we cite statements on this from Sabila al-Muhtadin (page 57) by Syeikh Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari:
“Takbir (for those) without performing hajj starts from the Subh of Arafah day, which is the ninth [Zulhijjah] until the ‘Asr of the last day of tasyriq”
Second, from the book Kifayah al-Muhtadi (Page 103) by Syeikh Muhammad Nur bin Muhammad bin Isma’il al-Fathani:
“Starting from after performing Subh prayer of Arafah day until the finish of ‘Asr prayer of the last day of tasyriq”
Third, from the book Bughyah al-Tullab (page 233) by Syeikh Daud bin Abdullah al-Fatani, a knowledgeable Malay world scholar as follows:
“And Takbir Muqayyad is also done on the day of Eidul Adha, starting from the Subh of Arafah day for those who do not perform hajj until the performance of ‘Asr prayer of the last tasyriq day”
Sighah of Takbir
It is Sunnah for us to recite takbir on Eidul Adha and Eidul Fitr according to sighah or lafaz which is warid (transmitted) from Rasulullah PBUH, the companions R.anhum, and are accepted as well as practiced by the past scholars in their respective times. Among the renown verses are:
- Narrated by Saiyiduna Ibn Abbas R.anhuma, in which, he recites takbir starting from Subh of Arafah day until the last day of Nafar, and not on the Maghrib, three times with the following verse:
اللهُ أَكْبَرُ اللهُ أَكْبَرُ اللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ اللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَأَجَلُّ اللهُ أَكْبَرُ عَلَى مَا هَدَانَا
Refer Sunan al-Kubra by al-Baihaqi (6280)
- Imam al-Nawawi states in his al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhadzdzab (2/81) in which Syeikh Ibn Sibagh, the author of al-Syamil said, “There is no wrong with practicing takbir as people do normally, three times, by the following verse :
اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَاَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ
"Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, there is no god but Allah.”
- It is Sunnah to add the following verses: 
اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيرًا وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ كَثِيرًا وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَلَا نَعْبُدُ إلَّا إيَّاهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ صَدَقَ وَعْدَهُ وَنَصَرَ عَبْدَهُ [ وَأَعَزَّ جُنْدَهُ ]  وَهَزَمَ الْأَحْزَابَ وَحْدَهُ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَاَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ [ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ]
“Allah is the Greatest, all Praise is due to Him, And Glory to Allah, eventide and in the morning. There is no god, but Allah. He alone we worship. With sincere and exclusive devotion, even though the infidels hate it. There is no deity but Allah the Unique. He has fulfilled His Promise, and made Victorious His worshipper, and made Mighty His soldiers and defeated the confederates. There is no deity but Allah. Allah is the Greatest. Allah is the Greatest and to Him goes all praise.”
The time of takbir for Eidul Adha and Eidul Fitr is different between each other. However, its purpose is the same in which it is meant to glorify Allah SWT on the days where Syarak tells us to celebrate them. This is the eminence and symbol of our religion that wants us to celebrate it whole-heartedly as a manifestation of our commitment and obedience to the One and Only God.
 According to the strongest opinion, as there is no narration from the Prophet PBUH regarding takbir muqayyad on the night of Eidul Fitr.
 According to Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haitami, its time ends after the performance of ‘Asr prayer.
 According to Imam al-Nawawi, what is stated by the author of al-Syamil, which cited by the author of al-Bahru al-Mazhab; Imam al-Ruyani as a saying of Imam al-Syafie in Mukhtasar al-Buwaiti, he said: “This verse is recited”. This is also stated by al-Nawawi in Minaj al-Talibin. Recited three times, just like the practice of Ibn Abbas.
 This is as being indicated by Imam al-Syafie in al-Umm. He also holds the opinion that any addition in zikrullah is okay. Refer to al-Majmu’ (5/39)
 This addition is practised by the scholars, even according to al-Nawawi in al-Adzkar, it is not warid (transmitted from Rasulullah PBUH). Refer Fath al-Wahhab Syarh Manhaj al-Tullab (1/98) by Syeikh al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari and Hasyiah al-Qalyubi wa Umairah (1/359).