What are the evidences of the sanctioning of ‘Eid prayer?
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Two ‘Eid prayers are sanctioned on the second year of Hijrah. The first ‘Eid prayer was performed by the Prophet PBUH on that particular year.
Meanwhile, the evidences of the sanctioning of ‘Eid prayer are through the verse:
فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ
“So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone].”
The jurists state that the word ‘pray’ here means ‘Eid prayer. This is in accordance to a hadeeth narrated by Abu Sa’id al-Khudri RA:
كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ وَالأَضْحَى إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى، فَأَوَّلُ شَىْءٍ يَبْدَأُ بِهِ الصَّلاَةُ ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ، فَيَقُومُ مُقَابِلَ النَّاسِ، وَالنَّاسُ جُلُوسٌ عَلَى صُفُوفِهِمْ، فَيَعِظُهُمْ وَيُوصِيهِمْ وَيَأْمُرُهُمْ، فَإِنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَقْطَعَ بَعْثًا قَطَعَهُ، أَوْ يَأْمُرَ بِشَىْءٍ أَمَرَ بِهِ، ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ
The Prophet (ﷺ) used to proceed to the Musalla on the days of Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Adha; the first thing to begin with was the prayer and after that he would stand in front of the people and the people would keep sitting in their rows. Then he would preach to them, advise them and give them orders, (i.e. Khutba). And after that if he wished to send an army for an expedition, he would do so; or if he wanted to give and order, he would do so, and then depart.
Sahih al-Bukhari (956) and Muslim (889)
Musalla is a wide place like fields and etc. Majority of the scholars said that it is Sunnah to perform ‘Eid prayers at musalla (wide place like fields).
Imam al-Nawawi said: “This hadeeth is an evidence of the ruling of Sunnah for ‘Eid prayers to be performed on wide land, and in fact is better than performing them in masjid (mosque).”
Such are said by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. However, according to mazhab al-Syafi’e, it is permissible to perform ‘Eid prayers at the masjid as what being practiced these days.
Mikhnaf bin Sulaim (a companion of the Prophet PBUH) said: “Step away on the day of ‘Eidul Fitri like those performing umrah. Step away on the day of ‘Eidul Adha like those who perform Hajj.”
May Allah grant us true understanding in religion. Amin.