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Question:

If my intention is of wearing khuf when I’m wearing shoes, can I remove my shoes for prayer? Especially when I’m uncertain whether my shoes are clean and can be brought in prayer.

Answer:

First, we state the definition of khuf and shoes:

  • Shoes: Footwear such as shoes, slippers and others. (See 4th edition of Kamus Dewan)
  • Khuf: Leather shoes that cover the feet till the ankles. Ankles are joint bones that protruded in between the foot and calf. (See al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, 1/241)

The difference for khuf is that it fully covers the whole feet past the ankles, and it’s made from leather. Thus, the shape and characteristics of the shoes should be determined first. If it is similar to khuf, or more than that, for example, military boots, then it falls under the same ruling as khuf. This is the opinion of some scholars, such as Sayyid Sabiq in Fiqh al-Sunnah.

Regarding the question that was asked, we assumed that the shoes meant satisfies the conditions of khuf. If not, it is not applicable for the shoes to follow the ruling for khuf. As for the ruling for khuf, we will explain below, referring to al-Fiqh al-Manhaji (1/241-245):

The Ruling of Wiping Khuf

The proof for wiping khuf with water is from the action of the Prophet PBUH, through a hadith from Jarir bin Abdullah al-Bajli RA, he said:

رَأَيْتُ النَّبِىَّ صَلى الله عليهِ وَسَلّم بَالَ ثُمَّ تَوَضَّأَ، وَمَسَحَ عَلَى خُفَّيْهِ

“I saw that the Messenger of Allah PBUH urinated, then performed ablution and then wiped over his shoes.”

Sahih al-Bukhari (1478) and Sahih Muslim (272)

The Conditions of Wiping Both Khuf

It is permissible to wipe both khuf under five conditions:

First: Both khuf are worn after the completion of ablution. This is in accordance with a hadith by al-Mughirah bin Syu’bah RA, he said:

كُنْتُ مَعَ النَّبِىِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم َفِى سَفَرٍ، فَأَهْوَيْتُ لأَنْزِعَ خُفَّيْهِ فَقَالَ: دَعْهُمَا، فَإِنِّى أَدْخَلْتُهُمَا طَاهِرَتَيْنِ. فَمَسَحَ عَلَيْهِمَا 

“Once I was in the company of the Prophet PBUH, he then performed ablution and I dashed to take off his socks. He said, “Leave them for I had put them on after performing ablution”. So, he wiped over them.”

Sahih al-Bukhari (203) and Sahih Muslim (274)

Second: Both khuf must cover the feet that are obligatory to be washed during ablution. Since it is not considered as khuf if they are not so.

Third: Both must be water-proof except at the stitches.

Fourth: Both are impervious and durable to be worn for one day and one night for a muqim (resident) and three days and three days for musafir (traveller).

Fifth: Clean and pure from any najis, even if it’s leather made from a carcass that has been tanned, for the skin of carcass that has been tanned is considered as pure. [1]

The Duration for Wiping the Khuf

The duration to wipe khuf for a resident is one day and one night, while for a traveller is three days and three nights. This is in accordance with narration by Syuraih bin Hani’ RA, he said:

أَتَيْتُ عَائِشَةَ أَسْأَلُهَا عَنِ الْمَسْحِ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ فَقَالَتْ عَلَيْكَ بِابْنِ أَبِى طَالِبٍ فَسَلْهُ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ يُسَافِرُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. فَسَأَلْنَاهُ فَقَالَ جَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم َثَلاَثَةَ أَيَّامٍ وَلَيَالِيَهُنَّ لِلْمُسَافِرِ وَيَوْمًا وَلَيْلَةً لِلْمُقِيمِ

“I came to 'A'isha to ask her about wiping over the socks. She said: You better ask ('Ali) son of Abu Talib for he used to travel with Allah's Messenger PBUH. We asked him and he said: The Messenger of Allah PBUH stipulated (the upper limit) of three days and three nights for a traveller and one day and one night for the resident.”

Sahih Muslim (276)

Whoever wears the khuf when he is residing, then he travels, he can wipe the khuf for only one day and one night. The same applies to anyone who travels, then resides, he has to end his duration for wiping the khuf to be as a resident’s duration.

This is due to the fact that the original rule of all people is residing and wiping the khuf is facilitation (rukhsah). Thus, in choosing a safe way of determining the duration to wipe the khuf, it is stated that one should go back to the original ruling.

The Start for the Duration of Wiping the Khuf

The duration for wiping the khuf starts after both khuf are worn and when hadas happens. Thus, if someone completes his ablution and wear the khuf for Subuh prayer, then hadas happens to him at sunrise, then the duration starts at sunrise.

The Method of Wiping the Khuf

It is obligatory to wipe a portion of the upper part of the khuf, even if the portion is small, and it is not enough to only wipe under the khuf.

It is sunnah to wipe the upper part of the khuf and under the khuf with one wipe, which is by placing the open fingers of the right hand on the upper part, at the edge of the foot, and the fingers of his left hand under the khuf, at the heel. Then, wipe using the right hand to the back of the foot while the left hand to the front of the foot.

Matters that Could Invalidate the Wiping of the Khuf

Three things that could invalidate the wiping of the khuf:

  1. Both or one of the khuf are removed or accidentally removed.
  2. The duration for wiping the khuf has ended. When the duration ended when he is still in wudhu’, then he has to remove both khuf and wash his feet, then he can wear them again. If he is not in wudhu’, he has to take his ablution again, then he can wear his khuf again if he wants to.
  3. Matters that obligate the bath happens. When it is obligatory to take a bath, he has to remove both his khuf and wash his feet. This is due to the fact that wiping khuf is only a substitute for washing one’s feet, and not to the obligatory bath. This is in accordance with a hadith from Safwan bin ‘Asal RA, he said:

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَأْمُرُنَا إِذَا كُنَّا مُسَافِرِينَ أَنْ نَمْسَحَ عَلَى خِفَافِنَا وَلاَ نَنْزِعَهَا ثَلاَثَةَ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ غَائِطٍ وَبَوْلٍ وَنَوْمٍ إِلاَّ مِنْ جَنَابَةٍ

“'The Messenger of Allah PBUH used to tell us, when we were travelling, to wipe over our Khuffs and not take them off for three nights in the event of defecating, urinating or sleeping; only in the case of Janabah."

Sunan al-Tarmizi (96) and Sunan al-Nasaie (1/83)

Janabah is matters that obligate the obligatory bath.

Wallahua’lam.

[1] This is applicable only at the beginning of wearing the khuf. That is, after wearing the khuf, if there is najis, it does not invalidate the ruling of wearing khuf, only the parts with najis needed to be washed. However, if someone is unsure, then go back to the original ruling, that there is not najis. It is forgiven if khuf is worn on roads that have najis for it is difficult to take care of. Refer to Minhaj al-Talibin (pg. 52). The same applies to land or soil, since its purity is difficult to be determined or if the najis is unknown, then he has to go back to the original ruling.