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Is Luqman al-Hakim a prophet or not?


Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the many countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.

We start with Allah SWT’s statement:

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا لُقْمَانَ الْحِكْمَةَ

“And We had certainly given Luqman wisdom,”

Surah Luqman (12)

Ibnu Jarir al-Tabari said: Allah SWT give Luqman the understanding in religion, mind and truth in his words. See Tafsir al-Tabari (18/545)

Al-Maraghi said: Allah SWT gifted Luqman with wisdom, that Luqman is always grateful and praises Allah SWT for the gift. This is due to the fact that only Allah is deserving for such praise and gratitude. Other than that, Luqman always do good deeds and is kind towards other people. See Tafsir al-Maraghi (11/5366)

Luqman al-Hakim is someone whose name is mentioned in the Quran for his wise words of advice to his son that his words are recorded by Allah SWT in a surah in the Quran and the surah is named as Surah Luqman.

Luqman’s Lineage

According to Ibnu Kathir, his name is Luqman ibn Anqa’ ibn Sadun. It is also said that his name is Luqman ibn Tharan. He is a resident in Aylah (Jerusalem). It is said he is a qadhi in the time of the Prophet Daud AS. Another opinion said that he is a slave from Ethiopia and a carpenter. Another opinion states that he is from Sudan, Egypt. (See al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah 3/6)

We include several opinions of scholars regarding Luqman’s lineage:

  • Muhammad bin Ishak said: Luqman bin Ba’ura’ bin Nahur bin Tarih
  • Al-Suhaili said: Luqman bin Anqa’ bin Sarun and he is originated from Aylah
  • Al-Zamakhsyari said: He lives for 1000 years and had the opportunity to meet and learn from the Prophet Daud AS
  • Al-Waqidi said: He is an Israeli qadhi


Yahya bin Sa’is al-Anshari narrated that Sa’id bin al-Musayyib said: Luqman is a black man from Egypt or Sudan and has thick lips. Allah SWT give him wisdom, but do not appoint him as a prophet. See Tafsir al-Tabari (10/208-209)

Sufyan al-Tsauri narrated from al-Asy’ath, from Ikrimah, Ibnu Abbas said: Luqman is a slave from Ethiopia and a carpenter. According to Jabir bin Abdullah, Luqman is a short, pug-nosed man from naubah.



Islamic scholars have differing opinions as to Luqman al-Hakim’s occupation, some of them are:

  • Qadhi
  • Tailor
  • Fire wood collector
  • Farmer
  • Carpenter

See Fatwa Dar al-Ifta' al-Misriyyah (no. 9211)


Is Luqman a Prophet?

The majority of Islamic scholars agreed that Allah SWT gives Luqman wisdom and his words of advice were recorded in the Quran. Most of the Islamic scholars hold the opinion that he is a wali but not a prophet.

Ibn Kathir said: The Salaf scholars have differing opinions about Luqman, is he a prophet or a pious servant of Allah SWT and not a prophet? In this issue, there are two opinions and the majority of the scholars hold the second opinion, which is Luqman is a pious servant of Allah SWT. See Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim (12/348)

Imam al-Nawawi said, “The scholars have differing opinions about the prophethood of Luqman al-Hakim. Abu Ishaq al-Tsa’labi said, “Scholars agreed that Luqman al-Hakim is an intelligent and wise man but not a prophet.” However, Ikrimah said, “Luqman is a prophet.” He is the only one that hold that opinion.”. See Syarh Sahih Muslim, by Imam al-Nawawi (2/503)

Conclusion: After analysing the opinions of scholars, we are inclined towards the opinion of the majority of Islamic scholars that said Luqman al-Hakim is a pious servant of Allah SWT and not a prophet because the opinions of Ikrimah and al-Sya’bi is weak. This opinion is also supported by Imam al-Nawawi and Ibn Kathir. Refer Fatwa Dar al-Ifta' al-Misriyyah (9211)

Luqman’s Words of Advice

Luqman has been gifted with wisdom from Allah SWT, and the wisdom here is meant as intelligence. This is proven by the words of advice for his son that Allah SWT recorded in the Quran.

Here, we include some of Luqman’s advice to his son other that what is stated in Surah Luqman. Some of them are:

  • O my son! This world is like a deep sea. There are many that have drowned in it. Hence, made your boat in this world with the clothing of taqwa towards Allah SWT, iman as its passenger and tawakkal as its sail. May you be safe but I’m not sure that you will be.
  • Whoever that advices himself surely would get attention from Allah SWT
  • Whoever become a good lesson to someone else, surely Allah SWT will add honour to him for becoming a good lesson to the other person.
  • Being lowly in obedience of Allah SWT is better than being proud while committing sins
  • O my son! Don’t be too sweet for surely you would be eaten and don’t be too bitter for surely you would be thrown up.
  • O my son! If you want to make someone as your friend, make him angry at you first, if he forgives you while he’s angry at you then befriend him, if not, then be careful of him.

Lastly, let us all take some advice from the words of wisdom of Luqman al-Hakim in the Quran:

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ ﴿١٧﴾ وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ ﴿١٨﴾ وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ

“O my son, establish prayer, enjoin what is right, forbid what is wrong, and be patient over what befalls you. Indeed, [all] that is of the matters [requiring] determination. And do not turn your cheek [in contempt] toward people and do not walk through the earth exultantly. Indeed, Allah does not like everyone self-deluded and boastful. And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys."

Surah Luqman (17-19)