Assalamualaikum ustaz, is it permissible for a human being to marry a jinn?
Waalaikumussalam wrt. wbt.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Jinn is one of the creations of Allah SWT. It is created before the creation of the Prophet Adam AS. Allah SWT state:
وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ ﴿٢٦﴾ وَالْجَانَّ خَلَقْنَاهُ مِن قَبْلُ مِن نَّارِ السَّمُومِ
“And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. And the jinn We created before from scorching fire.”
Surah al-Hijr (26-27)
Imam al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir commented on the statement of Allah SWT:
مِن نَّارِالسَّمُومِ وَالْجَانَّ خَلَقْنَاهُ مِن قَبْلُ
He states: “And the jinn, We (Allah) created it beforehand, which is before the creation of human (Adam) from scorching fire. Ibnu Abbas narrated: Scorching fire that kills.” See Tafsir Al-Qur’an al-‘Azhim, Ibn Katsir (5/10).
Syeikh al-Maraghi said: “We created the jinn before the creation of the Prophet Adam AS. It is created from fire, scorching hot breeze, searing, burning and killing anyone that comes in contact with it.” See Tafsir al-Maraghi, (14/20).
In a hadith narrated by Saidatina Aisyah R.Anha, she said, the Prophet PBUH said:
خُلِقَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ نُورٍ، وَخُلِقَ الْجَانُّ مِنْ مَارِجٍ مِنْ نَارٍ، وَخُلِقَ آدَمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ مِمَّا وُصِفَ لَكُمْ
“The Angels were born out of light and the Jinns were born out of the spark of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined (in the Qur'an) for you (i. e. he is fashioned out of clay).”
Sahih Muslim (2996)
According to Ibnu Abbas, Ikrimah, Mujahid, al-Hasan and others, regarding the creation of jinn from “مَارِجٍ مِنْ نَارٍ”, it means the end of burning fire (طرف اللهب) and in another narration it is meant as من خالصه (pure fire). See Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Ibn Katsir (1/59).
The jinn are generally divided into three. This is in accordance with a hadith narrated by Abi Tsa’labah al-Khusyaniy RA, where the Prophet PBUH said:
الْجِنُّ ثَلاَثَةُ أَصْنَافٍ صِنْفٌ لَهُمْ أَجْنِحَةٌ يَطِيرُونَ فِي الْهَوَاءِ ، وَصِنْفٌ حَيَّاتٌ وَكِلاَبٌ ، وَصِنْفٌ يَحِلُّونَ وَيَظْعَنُونَ
“The jinn are from three groups. The first group has wings and can fly in the air, the second group is in the form of snake and dog while the third group leads a nomadic lifestyle (just like the Bedouins).”
Narrated by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak (3702)
We have discussed in-depth regarding whether the jinn in included as mukallaf (accountable) which whether the commandments and prohibitions of syarak is applicable for them in Irsyad Usul al-Fiqh Series 41: Are the Jinn Considered as Mukallaf?
In explaining the above presented issue, we would like to state that generally, scholars have differing opinions regarding the ruling of humans marrying jinn. Syeikh Abu Hamid al-‘Imad bin Yunus Rahimahullah said: Yes, it is permissible for humans to marry jinn.
Whereas Syeikh Syarafuddin al-Barizi said: It is impermissible for a man to marry a female jinn. This is in accordance with two of the following statements of Allah SWT:
وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا
“And Allah has made for you from yourselves mates,”
Surah al-Nahl (72)
The same is stated in another statement of Allah SWT:
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِّتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا
“And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquillity in them,”
Surah al-Rum (21)
Commentary scholars explained both verses stating: (Allah SWT has created mates for you) from your own kind, according to the process of your creation. This is as stated by Allah SWT:
لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ
There has certainly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves.”
Surah al-Taubah (128)
Its meaning is: From among the children of Adam.
The scholars who prohibit marriage with jinn also included a weak hadith to support their argument. The hadith is as the following:
نهى النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم عَن نِكَاح الْجِنّ
“The Prophet PBUH prohibit the marriage with jinn.”
Narrated by Harb al-Karmani (mursal hadith)
Among the scholars who prohibit marriage between human and jinn are Imam Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Al-Hakam bin ‘Utaibah, Ishaq bin Rahawaih, and ‘Uqbah Al-Asom.
The same is the opinion of Syeikh Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Sijistani who is a Hanafiyyah jurist, he said: The marriage between human and jinn is impermissible. Refer Munyah Al-Mufti ‘an Al-Fatawa Al-Sirajiyyah.
In another argument, it is stated that marriage is sanctioned in order to cultivate love, calmness (between the couple) and mahabbah. These traits are not a part of the jinn.
Syarak also does not permit the marriage between human and jinn. Furthermore, Allah SWT state:
فَانكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ
“Then marry those that please you of [other] women,”
Sural al-Nisa’ (3)
The word women mean: The name specifically given for female human. Then, the prohibition on those other than them is applicable (other female creations). This is in accordance with Islamic legal maxim: “The original ruling for genital is prohibited unless there is evidence that permits it.”
The same is stated by scholars who ruled it impermissible for marriage between a man and slave woman, even if they are the same type of creation (both are human). Thus, marriage between human and jinn is also impermissible.
To conclude, we would like to state that according to the above discussion and evidences presented, marriage between human and jinn is impermissible. This is in line with maqasid syarak from the sanctioning of marriage is between a male and female human, resulting in love and care and continuing of lineage from among the man and woman. Furthermore, syarak emphasized kafaah which is compatibility between the couple in a marriage.
Lastly, may Allah SWT give us the right understanding in religion. Amin.