Assalamualaikum Sahibus Samahah Mufti. I want to ask if I’m travelling, which is prioritized; jamak taqdim or jamak ta’khir?
Hope for an explanation from Mufti. Thank you.
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah for the countless blessings He has blessed us all with. Blessings and salutations to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his wives, his family, companions and all those that follow his teachings to the day of judgement.
Allah SWT gives a facilitation (rukhsah) to a traveller for them to perform the prayer in jamak and qasar. Allah SWT states in the Quran:
وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا
“And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer, [especially] if you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack] you. Indeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy.”
Surah al-Nisa’ (101)
The facilitation (rukhsah) is a blessing from Allah SWT for His slaves and we as His slaves should accept it. Saidina Umar once asked regarding this matter to the Prophet PBUH, where the Prophet PBUH answered:
صدقةٌ تصدَّق اللهُ بها عليكم فاقبَلوا صدقةَ اللهِ
“This is a favor from Allah (SWT) to you, so accept His favor.”
Narrated by Ibn Hibban (2739)
Coming back to the question asked, which is prioritized; jamak taqdim or jamak ta’khir? The answer should be detailed (tafsil) according to the situation of a person travelling and not an absolute prioritization of one over the other. This is explained by Syeikh Hasan al-Kaff as the following:
- If he is on his journey during the first prayer time, for example, Zohor and rested in the second prayer time which is Asar, then jamak ta’khir prayer is prioritized according to the consensus of scholars.
- If he rested during the first prayer time, for example Zohor and will be in his journey during the second prayer time, then jamak taqdim is prioritized as agreed by scholars.
- If he stops or rests in his journey in both prayer times, then there is khilaf (difference of opinions):
Imam Ibn Hajar: Jamak taqdim is prioritized for it releases him from his responsibility of performing the prayers
Imam Ramli: Jamak ta’khir is prioritized for the prayer time for the second prayer is in the first prayer time. (Refer al-Taqrirat al-Sadidah fi al-Masail al-Mufidah, 318-319)
To conclude, we would like to state that the prioritization of jamak taqdim or ta’khir prayer depends on the situation of the traveller. If he is on his journey during the first prayer time and stops in the second prayer time, then jamak ta’khir is prioritized. While if he stops and rests in the first prayer time, then jamak taqdim is prioritized for him.
However, if he stops and rests for both prayer times, then there is khilaf for this and we are inclined towards the opinion of Imam Ibn Hajar which states that jamak taqdim is prioritized for him. May Allah SWT give is the correct knowledge in understanding His commandments and bless us with guidance to perform worship with sincerity towards Him. Amin.